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Home/What we do/Resources/Red Lists Database /Central America and Mexico
 
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Red List of Endangered Cultural Objects of Central America and Mexico

This Red List has been designed as a tool to help museums, art traders, collectors and customs and police officers in the identification of objects that may have been illegally exported from Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. The list describes several categories of endangered objects that may be subject to illicit trade.
Because of the wide range of objects, shapes, styles and periods, the Red List of Endangered Cultural Objects of Central America and Mexico is not exhaustive, and the origin of any antiquity from the region should be subject to detailed scrutiny and precautionary measures.
These objects are protected by legislation in each country, which specifically prohibits their traffic, export and sale. Therefore, museums, auction houses, art traders and collectors are urged not to purchase them, and are invited to report their presence to the relevant country's diplomatic mission, to local police authorities and to Interpol.
Note: The images in this publication are of objects held by national museums; they are published here as a comparison guide to help identify objects that may be subject to illegal trafficking.

 

Download the Red List of Endangered Cultural Objects of Central America and Mexico in English 

Download the Red List of Endangered Cultural Objects of Central America and Mexico in French 

Download the Red List of Endangered Cultural Objects of Central America and Mexico in Spanish 

Download the Red List of Endangered Cultural Objects of Central America and Mexico in German 

Legislation

NATIONAL LEGISLATIONS

BELIZE

Ordinance 20 on Ancient Monuments and Antiquities (31.12.1971). 
National Institute of Culture and History Act, Chapter 331 of the Substantive Laws of Belize 2000. Revised Edition 2003.

COSTA RICA

Law 7 on the Defence of the National Archaeological Heritage (06.10.1938), and Regulations "a" in Decree No. 14.

Law 6703 on the Protection of the National Archaeological Heritage (19.01.1982), and its Regulations.

Law 4711 on the UNESCO 1968 Recommendation on the Preservation of Cultural Property Endangered by Public and Private Works (06.01.1971).

Law 7555 on the Historic Architectonic Heritage of Costa Rica (27.09.1995).

El SALVADOR

Legislative Decree No. 513 - Special Law on the Protection of El Salvador's Cultural Heritage (22.04.1993).

GUATEMALA

Decree No. 425 - Law on the Protection and Conservation of Monuments, Archaeological, Historical and Traditional Objects (24.03.1966), amended by Decree-Law No. 437.

Decree No. 17-73 of the Penal Code (01.01.1974).

Decree No. 26-97 - Law on the Protection of the Nation's Cultural and Natural Heritage (09.04.1997).

Regulations for Archaeological Research and Related Disciplines (16.03.2007).

HONDURAS

Legislative Decree No. 81-84 - Law on the Protection of Cultural Heritage (1984), amended by Decree No. 220-97 (1997)

MEXIQUE

Sections 27, 28, 29 and 31 of the Constitution (1917).

Federal Law on Archaeological, Artistic and Historic Monuments and Zones (06.05.1972), and its Regulations (08.12.1975).

General Law on National Property (23.12.1981).

Regulatory Provisions for Archaeological Research (1984).

NICARAGUA

Decree No. 1142 - Law on the Protection of the National Cultural Heritage (29.09.1980).

Decrees No. 21 and 22 on Archaeological and Paleontological Ruins and Deposits, Archaeological Excavations, Removal of Idols or Other Property of Historical Interest (1949).

Decree No. 29 on the Export of Archaeological Property (15.02.1923).

Decree No. 304 on Archaeological Excavations.

PANAMA

Law 67 on various provisions relating to Monuments and Archaeological Objects (11.06.1941).

Constitution (1972).

Law 14 on Measures for the Custody, Conservation and Administration of the National Historical Heritage (1982).

Decree No. 364 on the Reporting of National Property (1979).

 

INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTS

UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property. Paris, 14 November 1970.

Ratified by: Belize (26.01.1990), Costa Rica (06.03.1996), El Salvador (20.02.1978), Guatemala (14.01.1985), Honduras (19.03.1979) and Nicaragua (19.04.1977).
Accepted by: Mexico (04.10.1972) and Panama (13.08.1973).

Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological, Historical and Artistic Heritage of the American Nations. San Salvador, 16 June 1976.

Ratified by: Costa Rica (27.08.1980), El Salvador (11.08.1980), Guatemala (17.11.1979), Honduras (06.07.1983) and Nicaragua (01.04.1980).

UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects. Rome, 24 June 1995.

Ratified by: El Salvador (16.07.1999) and Guatemala (03.09.2003).

UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, and Regulations for the application of the Convention. The Hague, 14 May 1954.

Ratified by: El Salvador (19.07.2001), Mexico (07.05.1956) and Nicaragua (25.11.1959).

Accepted by: Costa Rica (03.06.1998), Guatemala (02.10.1985), Honduras (25.10.2002) and Panama (17.07.1962).

Protocol to the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 14 May 1954.

Ratified by: Mexico (07.05.1956) and Nicaragua (25.11.1959).

Accepted by: Costa Rica (03.06.1998), El Salvador (27.03.2002), Guatemala (19.05.1994), Honduras (25.10.2002) and Panama (08.03.2001).

Second Protocol to the 1954 Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The Hague, 26 March 1999.

Accepted by: Costa Rica (09.12.2003), El Salvador (27.03.2002), Guatemala (04.02.2005), Honduras (26.01.2003), Mexico (07.10.2003), Nicaragua (01.06.2001) and Panama (08.03.2001).

Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972.

Ratified by: Belize (06.11.1990), Costa Rica (23.08.1977), Guatemala (16.01.1979), Honduras (08.06.1979) and Panama (03.03.1978).

Accepted by: El Salvador (08.10.1991), Mexico (23.02.1984) and Nicaragua (17.12.1979).

Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. Paris, 2 November 2001.

Ratified by: Mexico (05.07.2006) and Panama (20.05.2003).

 

BILATERAL AGREEMENTS

Belize-Mexico; El Salvador-United States; El Salvador-Mexico; Guatemala-United States; Guatemala-Mexico; Honduras-United States; Mexico-Bolivia; Mexico-United States; Mexico-Peru; Nicaragua-United States.