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Red List of Peruvian Antiquities at Risk

This Red List has been developed to assist museums, dealers in art and antiquities, and collectors, as well as customs and law enforcement officials in the identification of objects that may have been illicitly exported from Peru. To facilitate identification, the Red List describes several categories of objects at risk of being illicitly traded on the antiquities market. These objects are protected under Peruvian legislation banning their export and sale. Therefore, ICOM appeals to museums, auction houses, dealers in art and antiquities, and collectors not to purchase such objects without first having checked thoroughly their origin and provenance documentation.

 

Because of the great diversity of Peruvian objects, styles, and periods, the Red List of Peruvian Antiquities at Risk is not exhaustive, and any antiquity that may have originated in Peru should be subjected to detailed scrutiny and precautionary measures.

 

Download the the Red List of Peruvian Antiquities at Risk in English 

Download the the Red List of Peruvian Antiquities at Risk in French 

Download the the Red List of Peruvian Antiquities at Risk in Spanish

Download the the Red List of Peruvian Antiquities at Risk in German 

Context

The cultural heritage of Peru includes easily identifiable and unique objects of the great pre-Columbian civilisations, of the times of the Viceroyalty, and of the Republican era.

 

Despite the protection afforded by national legislation and international instruments, the cultural wealth of Peru is affected by looting and illicit trade. Between 2004 and 2006, illicit exports of over 5,000 cultural and natural objects were intercepted. Nevertheless, the number of clandestine excavations at archaeological sites has increased, as have thefts from churches and museums.

 

Illicit trade in Peruvian cultural property causes irreparable damage to the country's heritage and identity, and constitutes a serious loss for the memory of mankind.

 

In order to combat the looting and destruction of Peruvian archaeological sites and ecclesiastical complexes, the International Council of Museums has published this Red List of Peruvian Antiquities at Risk to assist legal authorities, build public awareness, and promote international cooperation in the protection of the cultural heritage of Peru.

 

This Red List is the fifth in the series published by ICOM to date. Red Lists describe types and categories of objects protected under national legislation and international agreements that are frequently illegally traded internationally. These Red Lists are developed by international teams of experts in the archaeology and ethnology of the country or region of origin of the objects. The illustrations show objects that, in the opinion of experts, belong to the categories that are most likely to be looted and traded illicitly. Red Lists are designed to protect cultural heritage at risk by assisting customs and law enforcement officials, dealers in art and antiquities, museums and collectors to identify objects of possible illicit origin. Potential buyers are advised to refrain from any purchase unless the items are accompanied by a certificate of origin and documentation showing provenance. Furthermore, customs, law enforcement officials, and other authorities are encouraged to take precautionary measures with respect to any object of suspect origin while its provenance is investigated in detail.