Milan 2016

31st General Assembly of ICOM
Milan, Italy, 2016

Resolution No. 1:

The Responsibility of Museums Towards Landscape

 Museums and landscapes are an essential element of humanity’s physical, natural, social and symbolic environment.

Landscape is a highly complex network, defined by relationships between social and natural elements. The richness of landscape arises from its diversity.

Museums are part of the landscape. They collect tangible and intangible testimonials linked to the environment. The collections forming part of their heritage cannot be explained without the landscape.

Museums have a particular responsibility towards the landscape that surrounds them, urban or rural. This implies a dual duty: on the one hand, the management and upkeep of heritage in a sustainable development perspective for the territory; on the other, attention given to images and representations that identify and connote the landscape itself.

 Considering the above, and

  1. Remembering UNESCO Conventions, ICOM Code of Ethics and NATHIST Code of Ethics;
  2. Knowing that the concept of Cultural Landscape incorporates not only the physical size of a territory, but also a wide range of intangible factors - from language to lifestyle; from religious belief to the different forms of social life; from technology to ways of life and production, as well as to power relations and exchanges between generations;
  3. Recognizing that such concept encompasses soundscapes, olfactory, sensory and mental landscapes, and also the landscapes of memory and of conflict, often incorporated in places, objects, documents and images, endlessly expanding opportunities for museums to take action on cultural landscapes;
  4. Understanding that museums contribute with the knowledge and expertise of their professionals, to raise awareness among communities - helping the development of decisions that involve a transformation of the landscape;
  5. Considering that museums share the task with other institutions working to preserve heritage and ensuring its management and development.

The 31st General Assembly of ICOM recommends that:

·         Museums extend their mission from a legal and operational point of view and manage buildings and sites of cultural landscape as 'extended museums', offering enhanced protection and accessibility to such heritage in closed relationship with communities.

·         Museums contribute not only to the knowledge of the values of cultural landscapes, but also to the development of symbolic frameworks that determine them, so that the notion of cultural landscape becomes an instrument for the assessment of what needs to be protected, enhanced and handed on to future generations, and what will go instead questioned, criticized and modified.

The International Council of Museums assumes the need to emphasize the mention of cultural landscapes in its key documents, such as the Definition of Museum, the ICOM Statutes and the ICOM Code of Ethics.

NB: Drafted from a Recommendation submitted by ICOM France and ICOM Italy on 5 July 2016, and supported by ICOFOM.

Resolution No. 2:

Inclusion, Intersectionality and Gender Mainstreaming in Museums

Considering that:

1.       The implementation process of the Resolution No. 4 of the 28th General Assembly of ICOM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2013, on “Museums, Gender Mainstreaming and Inclusion: Benchmarking against the ICOM Cultural Diversity Charter, Shanghai 2010”
has mainly been focused on Gender Equity;

2.       Intersectionality such as of race, ethnicity, colour, faith, age, class, regional location and sexual orientation are rarely assessed in considering inclusion;

3.       Cross cutting themes are significant in the 1948 United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the 2001 UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity; the 2015 UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Protection and Promotion of Museums and Collections; and the ICOM Cultural Diversity Charter adopted during the 25th General Assembly of ICOM in Shanghai, China, 2010.

The 31st General Assembly of ICOM recommends that the President and Executive Board of ICOM develop:

·         Further systematic approaches to assessing the follow up to Resolutions from ICOM 2010 and 2013 General Conferences and build on the work of the Strategic Plan and Resolutions Monitoring Committee (MOCO) in assessing the extent to which ICOM’s programmes and activities, including various Committee deliberations, address cultural, linguistic and geographical diversity benchmarked against the ICOM Cultural Diversity Charter;

·         Gender Mainstreaming policies and strategies, and actively ensure their implementation as an integral part of ICOM’s future strategic goals;

·         Strategies for expanding and encouraging the inclusion of members and their communities and countries across the geographical regions of the world; and

·         The Inclusive Museum Knowledge Community through enhanced communication strategies.

NB: Drafted from a Recommendation submitted by ICOM ICTOP, ICOFOM and INTERCOM on 3 July 2016 and supported by ICOM Croatia, ICOM Zambia, ICOM ICOFOM, ICOM NATHIST and PIMA.


Resolution No. 3

Strengthening the Protection of Cultural Heritage During and After Armed Conflict, Acts of Terrorism, Revolutions and Civil Strife 


1.       Resolution No. 5 of the 28th General Assembly of ICOM, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2013, on the “Protection of Cultural Heritage During and After Armed Conflict, Revolutions and Civil Strife”;

2.       The increase of terrorist acts with dramatic consequences on communities, heritage and museum collections; and

3.       The most recent dramatic events occurring in the world of museums, monuments and sites

The 31st General Assembly of ICOM recommends:

·         Ongoing strengthening of the protection of Cultural Heritage During and After Armed Conflict, Revolutions and Civil Strife; including conflicts all over the world that provoke terrorist acts having dangerous impacts on communities, museums and landscapes.

NB: Drafted from a Recommendation submitted by ICOM Iran on 27 May 2016 and supported by ICOM Lithuania, ICOM Poland and ICOM Europe.


Resolution No. 4:

Promotion and Protection of Cultural Objects on International Loan


1.       That cultural exchanges through sharing heritage and museum collections strengthen dialogue, mutual enrichment and understanding among nations and cultures, and serve as an important educational instrument as well as a driver for economic growth and tourism, contributing to sustainable development;

2.       That cultural objects constitute a universal treasure of humanity and should be protected while being temporarily abroad by a legal international instrument consistent with national laws and other international conventions;

3.       The cooperation and the interchange of museum collections for purposes of exhibitions, education and research are promoted by ICOM Guidelines for Loans (1974) and the revised version of the ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums (2004);

4.       That immunity from seizure and jurisdiction should correspond to established international instruments regulating the movement of cultural property.

The 31st General Assembly of ICOM recommends that the Executive Board of ICOM:

  • Drafts a policy position for promoting the immunity of cultural objects on international loan for cultural, educational and research purposes from seizure.

NB: Drafted from a Recommendation submitted by ICOM Russia on 27 May 2016 and supported by PIMA.

The members of the Resolutions Committee for the 2016 Milan General Conference are:

 Dorota FOLGA-JANUSZEWSKA, Poland, Chairperson; Amareswar GALLA, Australia, Member; Rooksana OMAR, South Africa, Member; Luis RAPOSO, Portugal, Member; Emma NARDI, Italy, Member; Teti HADJINICOLAOU, Greece, Member; Vaiva LANKELIENE, Lithuania, Member.

Ex officio members: Hans Martin HINZ, Germany, ICOM President; Anne-Catherine Robert-Hauglustaine, France, ICOM Director General.     ( - Download Free Porn from Keep2Share